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中国经济管理大学 《心理学与人力资源管理》 (MBA研究生课程班)Chapter 1 - Orga...

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中国经济管理大学 《心理学与人力资源管理》 (MBA研究生课程班)


Chapter 1 - Organizations, Work, and Applied Psychology

    韦恩.F.卡西欧(Wayne F. Cascio)美国科罗拉多大学(丹佛校区)商学院Robert H. Reynolds全球领导与管理讲座教授,拥有罗切斯特大学工业与组织心理学博士学位。担任美国心理学会工业/组织心理学分会、美国管理学会、全美人力资源学会等多个组织会士。
  赫尔曼·阿吉斯(Herman Aguinis)美国科罗拉多大学(丹佛校区)商学院Mehalchin管理讲座教授。曾担任美国管理学会研究方法分会会长。

Chapter 1 - Organizations, Work, and Applied Psychology

Overview
Chapter one introduces the interdisciplinary relationships between the fields of psychology and human resource management.  Highlights include descriptions of the specialty areas of industrial organizational psychology, personnel psychology, and applied psychology. Also included is an explanation of the inter-relationship between human resource management and applied psychology.  Discussions clarify the previous contributions of these specialty areas to the understanding of organizational behaviors and the future challenges for organizational successes. For example, historically, applied psychology focused on the identification, assessment, and development of predictive individual behaviors.  Future needs for applied psychology expertise reflect the pressures associated with continued globalization of the world of work.  Applied psychologists work in conjunction with human resource professionals to implement and manage research findings within the ethical, legal, and moral considerations for the individuals involved.
Annotated Outline
I. At a Glance
a. Organizations are  
i. Are part of daily lives
ii. Vary by size and function and jobs  
iii. Include individuals who vary by aptitudes, abilities, and interests
iv. Depend on HRM to blend individual interests and organization objectives
b. Information Age changes job perceptions
i. Job security less relevant than employment security
ii. Training and development extremely important
iii. Demographic changes impact recruitment and staffing
iv. Cultural diversity is key component
c. Assumptions of a free society
i. Qualifications are sole determinants for job competition
1. Not gender
2. Not race
3. Not age
4. Not ethnicity, culture
5. Not color
ii. Applied Psychology contributes to wise, humane use of human resources
II. Pervasiveness of Organizations
a. Introduction
i. Everyone’s life is touched by organizations
1. School
2. Church
3. Sports
4. Service Groups
5. Military
6. Government
b. Definitions of organizations
i. Reflect characteristics of person providing definition
ii. Some recurring elements to definitions of organization
c. General definition
i. People working together in division of labor to achieve common purpose
ii. System of inputs, throughputs, outputs
1. Inputs – raw materials imported to organization
2. Throughput – converting raw material to finished product, service
3. Output – results of the throughputs
iii. People are basic to all organizations
iv. Social relationships tie people together in organizations
d. Applied Psychology contributes to humane use human resources
i. Personnel psychology, sub-field of Applied Psychology
1. Studies individual differences in behavior and job performance
2. Develops methods for measurement and prediction of differences
e. Differences in jobs – world of work
i. Manufacture tangible products: food, automobiles, plastics, paper, textiles, glassware
ii. Provision of services: legal counsel, health care, police, fire protection
iii. Individuals differ in ability, aptitudes, interests, experience, skills
f. Differences in Performance
i. People are expensive for organizations: recruitment, selection, placement, training
ii. People differences
1. Physically – size, weight, height …
2. Cognitively – ability, aptitude, interests
3. Psychologically  - personality, commitment, motivation
iii. People differences lead to work differences
1. Speed
2. Quality
3. Ambition
iv. Good decisions are profitable, incorrect decisions can be disastrous
g. A Utopian Ideal
i. Assess individual aptitudes, abilities, personality, interests
ii. Profile individual characteristics
iii. Place individuals in jobs best suited per assessments
iv. Real world of work not as ideal
v. Many individuals mismatched in jobs
h. Point of View
i. Free societies allow every qualified person to compete for any job they are qualified
ii. Society can and should be wise and humane with treatment of human resources
iii. HRM professionals must be
1. Technically competent
2. Well-informed
iv. Personnel psychology can improve caliber of HRM within organizations
III. Personnel Psychology in Perspective
a. Introduction
i. Psychologists study people
ii. Industrial Organizational psychology studies people at work
iii. Questions are as important as subjects of study
1. Engineering psychology: tool and machine design, work space, information
2. Social psychology: power and influence, attitude change, group dynamics
iv. Personnel psychology is subfield of industrial organizational psychology
1. Focuses on individual differences in behavior & job performance
2. Develops measurement methods to assess differences
3. Analyze and evaluate jobs
4. Design and implement recruitments
5. Screen applicants
6. Select employees
7. Train and develop employees
8. Manage employee performance
v. Personnel psychology overlaps with human resource management
1. To achieve organizational goals, HRM manages
a. Staffing
b. Retention
c. Development
d. Adjustment
e. Change
vi. Personnel psychology does not study, HRM does study
1. Labor and compensation
2. Law
3. Organization theory
4. Industrial medicine
5. Collective bargaining
6. Employee benefits
vii. Personnel psychology assists HRM with
1. Leadership development
2. Motivation
3. Optimized staffing
viii. Work world changes are driving renewed interest in personnel psychology
1. Technology
2. Markets
3. Organizational design
4. Managerial and employee roles
b. Changing Nature of Product and Service Markets
i. Globalization
1. Commerce without borders
2. Interdependence business operations different geographic locations
3. Just-in-time inventories
4. Nanosecond technologies
5. 24/7 culture
ii. Example computer programming
1. was once highly specialized
2. is now rote and outsourceable
iii. Growing ethnic and regional tensions
iv. Terrorism threats
v. Economic interdependence between countries
vi. American ideals sought world-wide
1. Open political debates in Soviet empire
2. European countries in North American Free Trade Act
3. Democratic reform South and Central America
4. Free market entrepreneurship in southern China
vii. Success depends on the people associated with each organization
1. HRM assistance needed
2. Industrial Organizational psychology assistance needed
3. Personnel Psychology assistance needed
4. Applied Psychology assistance needed
viii. Impact on Jobs and Psychological Contract – Special Note
1. Job churning from 20th century will continue into 21st century
2. White- and blue-collar jobs impacted
3. Corporate down-sizing entrenched
4. Psychological (unwritten) contract for continuous employment lost
a. Stability, predictability not guaranteed
b. Job-hopping typical, accepted, necessary (from 7 to 10 per career)
5. Individuals must develop own employment stability by continuous training
6. Self-reliance critical
c. Effects of Technology on Organizations and People
i. Millions of individual net-worked computers
1. Cellular phones
2. Personal digital assistants
3. E-mail
4. Digital data is borderless
5. Distance may be meaningless with digital infrastructure
6. Virtual offices commonplace
ii. Only constant is change
iii. Technically literate, continuously trained, motivated workers required
iv. Workers bombarded by data, too
1. Junk mail
2. Hackers
3. Compromised privacy
v. High technology puts more demands on quality workforce
1. More skills necessary
2. Higher level thinking required
3. Interruptions more costly
d. Changes in the Structure and Design of Organizations
i. From brick and mortar to World Wide Web of Internet
ii. All employees have access to all levels of information, instantaneously
iii. Must operate assuming constant change
iv. Organize around networks not hierarchies
v. Build partnerships and alliances
vi. Construct technological competencies
vii. Virtual, boundaryless, flexible
viii. Multi-specialists required of managers and workers
e. Changing Role of the Manager
i. Traditional organizations
1. Management by 3-C logic
a. Command – top down, one-way communication
b. Control – clearly defined jobs, fragmented tasks
c. Compartment – departments, units, functions
2. Information as power
3. Stability, predictability, efficiency
ii. Today’s organizations’ managers
1. Respond to rapidly changing conditions
2. Are visionary, articulate
3. State and endorse values and goals  
4. Implements workforce democracy  
a. Sharing and collaboration
b. Continuous learning
5. Practice contingency leadership demands
a. Path-goal theory
b. Normative decision theory
c. Least Preferred Co-worker theory
6. Employ autocratic leadership when necessary (key is knowing when and how)
7. Need to be Transformational leaders most often
a. Creative
b. Imaginative
c. High interpersonal skills
d. Understanding human behavior
8. Team-work frequent
a. Teams
i. Intact, identifiable social systems (small or temporary)
ii. Authority to manage tasks
iii. Authority to manage interpersonal processes
iv. Self-management accepted
b. Group work common, too
i. Intact, identifiable social systems
ii. Managers have authority to manage tasks
          iii.  Managers responsible for interpersonal processes
         iv.  Management occurs as directed by supervision  
9. Workers act like managers
a. Do control, plan, and inspect
b. Do coach, facilitate, and mentor
10. Mangers act like workers,
a. Do coach, facilitate, and mentor
b. Don’t control, plan, and inspect
f. Empowered Worker - No Passing Fad
i. Change common to high-profile and high-tech
ii. Change common to unglamorous and low-tech
1. Box 1-1 Cadet Uniform Services, Now Part of Cintas Corporation
2. Redefined and empowered their drivers
a. Customer Service Representatives and entrepreneurs
b. Achieved increased incomes for employees
c. Decreased turnover within corporation
d. Increased sales for 34 consecutive years
iii. Worker demographics are different
1. More women at all levels, in all occupations
2. More multi-ethnics
3. More multi-cultural
4. More older workers
5. More workers with disabilities
6. More robots
7. More contingent workers
8. Self-reliance necessary
9. Training constant
10. Team-work common
11. Adaptability required
g. Implications for Organizations and Their People
i. All aspects for organizations move easily except for the workforce
ii. Quality workforces necessary
iii. HRM increases competitive advantages when
1. Add benefit to production, services, decision making
2. Workforce characteristics distinguished from competitors
3. Workforce skills are not easily duplicated
iv. Quote from Albert Einstein, Workplace, 1993, p. 2.
1. “Everything has changed, except our way of thinking.”
v. Job security has changed to employment security
vi. Demographics even more important
vii. Cultural diversity a necessity
viii. Potential problems
1. Insecurity
2. Uncertainty
3. Stress
4. Social Friction
ix. Potential benefits
1. Challenge
2. Creativity
3. Flexibility
4. Control
5. Interrelatedness
IV. Plan of the Book
a. Fundamental Concepts in Applied Measurement
i. Chapter 2 – Legal Requirements for Fair Employment
ii. Chapter 3 – Personnel Psychology as an integrative model
iii. Chapter 4 – Performance Criteria
iv. Chapter 5 – Performance Management
b. Core of Personnel Psychology
i. Chapter 6 – Measurement of Individual Differences
ii. Chapter 7 – Validation of Measurements
iii. Chapter 8 – Fairness in Employment Decisions
c. Job Relevancy
i. Chapter 9 – Job Analysis
ii. Chapter 10 – Workforce Planning
d. Staffing
i. Chapter 11 – Recruitment
ii. Chapter 12 – Screening
iii. Chapter 13 – Decision Making for Selection
iv. Chapter 14 – Managerial Selection
e. Training and Development
i. Chapter 15 – Training and Development Design
ii. Chapter 16 – Training and Development Implementation and Measurement
f. Globalization and Ethics
i. Chapter 17 – International Dimensions
ii. Chapter 18 – Ethical Issues in Human Resource Management

Guide to End-of-chapter Discussion Questions
1.  Why is employment security more important to most workers than job security? Pages 1 - 3
Student answers may vary but should be based on material from pages 1through 3, Implications for Organizations and Their People. Some students will have relevant personal examples to share based on their families’, caregivers’, and individual experiences.
Today’s American workforce recognizes that they are in competition with the workforces of countries around the world. With the pressures of global competition, organizations are forced to make frequent and sometimes unplanned staffing changes.  These changes include downsizing, outsourcing, hiring contingent workers, and collaborations with other organizations.  With these outside the organization pressures, there also are pressures within organizations to make frequent changes in the way the organizations completes their missions. These internal pressures force individual jobs to undergo frequent changes and redefinitions.
As a consequence workers recognize that there is no guarantee of the psychological contract between an employer and an employee for continuous long-term employment.  With these realities of work, employees are more interested in employment security (being needed by many organizations) than in job security (working in one position for one company for a working career).


2.  How have globalized product and service markets affected organizations and workers? Pages 5 - 10
Student answers should emphasize information from pages 5 through 10 from The Changing Nature of Product and Service Markets, Effects of Technology on Organizations and People, Changes in the Structure and Design of Organizations.
The globalization of products and services has led to some dramatic changes for workers, organizations, and consumers.  Technological advances and improvements bring people from all over the world closer together.  These changes also decrease the need for a large single workforce located in one central  geographic location. Technological improvements have made some highly skilled careers become more routine reducing the need specially trained employees. This decreases the need for some employees while creating the need for other less expensive employees.
Another result of this change is the perceived loss of the psychological contract between employers and employees.  Employers need their employees to be self-sufficient and multi-talented and deeply committed to the organization. Employees may feel a degree of personal job insecurity and may experience a decrease in organizational loyalty. The combined employer and employee effects keep the job market in a state of constant churning with employees constantly looking for a better positions and employers constantly looking for better employees.  
Additionally, the globalization of product and service markets allows organizations and individuals to have access to greater varieties of less expensive consumable products and, in theory, less expensive services.  While these changes appear to be appealing, the realities are that all organizations, workers, and individuals have been forced to recognize that globalization does not mean Americanization. Instead, globalization means that constant adaptations are required and that greater awareness of cultural differences is necessary for globalization to continue successfully.
3.  Discuss some of the changes that have occurred in the perceptions that workers and organizations have about each other in light of the massive downsizing that has taken place during the past decade. Pages 9, 10
Answers should draw from the perspectives presented on pages 9 and 10, Impact on Jobs and the Psychological Contract.
While not a formal document, most employers and employees operated from a psychological contract which guaranteed employment for as long an employee desired and needed to work for an  employer.  Employers expected to invest in their employees’ development and employees expected to earn their continued employment.  Stability and predictability were the norm for employees and employers.  
With the recent massive downsizing that has occurred as a result of global competition and technological advances that have decreased the need for many highly skilled workers,  employees are being forced to think more like entrepreneurs and to assume more responsibility for their continued employment. Employers are forced to hire only those individuals who contribute to immediate organizational needs instead of taking a long-range career development employment approach. Employees must become self-sufficient and assume more responsibility for their work future.

4.  How does information technology change the roles of managers and workers? Pages 6 - 9
  Discussions will vary based on students’ work experiences both personal and vicarious. Most discussions will include information from pages 6 through 9, Effects of Technology on Organizations and People.  Insightful students will include information from the sections Changes in the Structure and Design of Organizations, The Changing Role of the Manager, and The Empowered Worker – No Passing Fad (pages 6 -9).
The pervasive use of technologies in all companies requires that all employees be technologically literate and sophisticated, while being willing to train constantly. Additionally, companies require employees who use technologies wisely and who do not allow technological time-wasters to impact their productivity. For example, employees need to know how to ignore spam, how to manage the distractions from multiple communication devices, and how to use the correct technologies for each work situation.  
These technological realities change the roles of managers from being command, control, and compartmental specialists to that of coaches, mentors, and co-workers.  Managers continue to be responsible for implementing organizational plans and for outcomes but their methods for achieving these expectations have changed.   For employees, technologies provide greater access to more information more quickly and may allow them to work from any location rather than being restricted to an office in a building. Employees must act with greater independence and be more conscientious about completing work assignments alerting their managers and team members quickly when commitments are at risk.  In summary, managers must act like traditional and non-traditional managers based on the contingencies of the situation. Employees must act like entrepreneurs while also acting like team members and, at times, traditional employees based on their contingencies, too.  
5. Describe some potential problems and opportunities presented by the changing nature of work. Pages 9, 10
  Descriptions will include the information from pages 9 through 10, Implications for Organizations and Their People, with particular attention paid to page 10’s itemized lists.  
Some of the potential problems associated with the changing world of work include the need to change jobs frequently, the pressures of needing to keep technological skills current, the expectations that an employee can work from any location, the need to understand many different cultures, and increased pressures for travel. Changing jobs frequently means that individuals must understand organizational behaviors in general but learn quickly the unique aspects for each organization with whom they interact. Frequent job changes may require that employees move often. This means that employees and their families must have strong social skills for adapting to new living arrangements, too.  Feeling pressure to keep technology skills current, puts employees in the position of always being in school and implies that it is reasonable to employers to support the training both financially and through time allowed to complete the training. Being able to work from any location means that employees have to be able to concentrate, to focus, and to be organized enough to complete their work from many environments. This reality can create problems with employees giving their life enough structure to know when to  “leave work” and when to be “only at work.”  The need to work with many different types of people from many differing backgrounds creates problems for individuals who have not developed proficiencies with diverse co-workers and with multiple cultures. Being sensitive to differences without being discriminatory about these differences is necessary for today’s successful employees.  Allowing employees to work from many locations does not exclude the need for travel. Therefore, employees do not enjoy travel may experience increases in stress and decreases in job satisfaction when travel is frequent, mandatory, and involves significant amounts of time.
From a different perspective, these same problems will be benefits for other employees.  Once individuals accept the need to change jobs frequently, many individuals embrace the challenges of new positions, enjoy the variety of experiences, and ultimately develop amazingly diverse and highly valued sets of employable skills. From a similar perspective, employees who recognize that technological changes represent progress and technological competence is highly valued, become employees that many employers want to have as a part of their organization. These individuals recognize technology as a tool for career achievement and, therefore, do not experience as much stress or difficulty adapting to new technologies.  These same employees also recognize that not technologies will apply to their jobs and are better able to make smart recommendations to their employers about the adoption or advisability of passing on some technologies.  Employees with this mind-set understand how to work from varying locations but also how to set limits to their work locations. These employees enjoy the freedoms of working through technology but do not allow the technological access to dictate their entire life.  Many employees today are excited about and willing to take part in the increased diversification of the world of work. These same employees experience different cultures as a way to increase understanding and to build opportunities for all workers wherever they are located.  


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